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Moreover, notice that all of the data types included in the TIMIT corpus fall into the two basic categories of lexicon and text, which we will discuss below.

Even the speaker demographics data is just another instance of the lexicon data type.

We can also construct special tabulations (known as paradigms) to illustrate contrasts and systematic variation, as shown in 11.3 for three verbs. At the most abstract level, a text is a representation of a real or fictional speech event, and the time-course of that event carries over into the text itself.

Structured collections of annotated linguistic data are essential in most areas of NLP, however, we still face many obstacles in using them.

The goal of this chapter is to answer the following questions: Along the way, we will study the design of existing corpora, the typical workflow for creating a corpus, and the lifecycle of corpus.

It may come with annotations such as part-of-speech tags, morphological analysis, discourse structure, and so forth.

As we saw in the IOB tagging technique (7), it is possible to represent higher-level constituents using tags on individual words.

This last observation is less surprising when we consider that text and record structures are the primary domains for the two subfields of computer science that focus on data management, namely text retrieval and databases.

A notable feature of linguistic data management is that usually brings both data types together, and that it can draw on results and techniques from both fields.TIMIT was developed by a consortium including Texas Instruments and MIT, from which it derives its name.It was designed to provide data for the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic knowledge and to support the development and evaluation of automatic speech recognition systems.Finally, notice that even though TIMIT is a speech corpus, its transcriptions and associated data are just text, and can be processed using programs just like any other text corpus.Therefore, many of the computational methods described in this book are applicable.Five of the sentences read by each speaker are also read by six other speakers (for comparability).

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