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The formal methods of componential analysis, rewrite rules and the recent appeal to optimality theory from phonemics (Jones 2010) only provide us with descriptive accounts of kinship terminologies, not the reasons for differences among them (Read 2000, 2010a).
Formal accounts of the distinction made by Lewis Henry Morgan between the classificatory terminologies (now known as bifurcate merging terminologies) and the descriptive terminologies – a distinction made by him on the basis of absence or presence of collateral kin terms – depend on a hypothesized extensionist claim that is “cumbersome and Nicholas Allen’s (2008) tetradic theory avoids the....
We still have, then, the quandary posed by Morgan’s assertion that the classificatory and descriptive terminologies involve “two radically distinct forms of consanguinity […] so diverse in their fundamental conceptions and so dissimilar in their structure,” that how they “came into existence […] may be wholly impossible to explain” (1871: 11-12, 13).
The classification of genealogical relations by kin terms is determined through a mapping of a space representing kin term relations into a space of genealogical relations.
This accounts for the genealogical definitions of kin terms otherwise presumed to be primary data for understanding kinship relations.
The Murinbata, notion of a “firestick father” is distinct from that of a genetic father “by the fact that the “firestick father” is sometimes a woman [Malinowski 1963]” (Barnes 1964: 296).
Similarly, the Tiwi distinguish between producing a biological child and a social child, for they “recognize that either a husband or a lover can make a baby by having sexual intercourse with its mother [however] [...] a Tiwi must by its father, the man to whom its mother is married” (Goodale 1971: 138, emphasis in the original). Kung San in southern Africa, genealogy is not of importance for a child learning the usage of kin terms: he applied a certain term to someone, but he would know that the term he used was proper, and he would know the proper joking status to observe; that would have been well taught him by his parents” (Marshall 1976: 204, emphasis in the original).
For males, the rights, responsibilities and duties of a father are established through marriage; that is, a social act that establishes the procreative, sexual or other rights of an individual (or individuals) socially recognized as an occupant of the spouse position We find occasional ethnographic references to so-called....
The rights, responsibilities and duties associated with the position of father in the family space are variable both within and between societies in the way fatherhood is culturally conceptualized, ranging from extensive male parenting to its absence, and need not be based on a man’s biological role in reproduction Among the Nayar of India in traditional times, a girl....
In our framework these primitive conceptual relations are derived from the culturally identified positions that form a family space from relations “” (Morgan 1871: 10, emphasis in the original).
From an evolutionary viewpoint, these primitive conceptual relations had their origin in the evolving mental/cognitive capacities of the precursors of modern The family space encompasses the atom of kinship (Lévi-Strauss... (on the next page).
Assigning individuals to the positions in accordance with culturally valid criteria leads to a socially constituted behavioral unit we refer to as a family.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating