Porono sweetest positions des rapports

by offerings and adulation only the beings he dreads.

The first feeling of genuine human sympathy with the lower animals grew out of their subjection and domestication, whereby they, like captives of war, were recognised as members of the family or tribe with which they were united by ties, not of actual affinity, but of adoption and common interest.

The elephant and the butterfly can not be boxed together nowadays, except in a child's Noah's Ark.

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Since our own lot is a hard one And our fortune is but evil, By dogs' feet to be run over.

As Miss Cobbe has very perti- nently remarked: " The whole subject of oi.r moral re- lations to the lower animals is undoubtedly a most ob- scure and difficult one. " Prudently they gave her answer, Thus to her replied the Roadways : *'For thy son we can not plague us, We have sorrows, too, a many.

This dualism of god and devil is practically applied in the story of creation as recorded in the first fargard of the Vendidad, and furnishes the foundation of the most reasonable and equitable system of animal ethics developed by any Oriental people.

Buddha forbade his followers to kill any animal whatsoever, and this absolute prohibition in the countries in which Buddhism prevails and ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY.

— Progress and perfectibility in the lower ani- mals 197 VII. This feeling is the source of totemism and the worship of deified ancestors in the forms of beasts and birds and even reptiles, which is probably the basis of all zoolatry.

Survivals of animal worship in the cults of civilized races. If he recognises their superiority, he tries to flee from them or seeks to avert their wrath and win their favour by reverential submission and propitiation.

Thomas Aquinas, the *' angelic doctor," whose metaphysical quillets and quodlibets received the sanction of the Council of Trent and still rank as quasi-articles of faith in the Catholic Church, it is only necessary to show that the supposed chasm has no real existence as a fixed, final, and im- passable barrier, and in the light of modern anthropo- logical and psychological research has resolved itself into a wavering, indeterminable, and almost evanescent line of demarcation. 5 Nowhere seen the golden apple, Him my darling staff of silver ?

In order to meet on their own ground these followers of St. Some revision of the 'Person and Thing' philosophy is, however, the first thing to be achieved; somo reconstruction of the meta- physical and ethical systems of bygone times in better accordance with our present anthropolgy and psycholo- * Quoted by Frances Power Cobbe in The Ethics of Zoophily, a paper published originally in the London Contemporary Review (November, 1895), in refutation of similar views expressed by the Rev. A strik- ing illustration of this tendency, as it survives in poetry, is the manner in which Lemminkainen, in the Finnic epos Kalewala, accosts the roadways which seem to come to meet her as she goes in search of her lost son: *' Roadways, ye whom God hath shapen, Have ye not my son beholden, ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY.

r REESE LIBRARY OK THIC UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Received z Accc-ssioii No. Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2007 with funding from IVIicrosoft Corporation OOevanrich CONTENTS. — Religious belief as a basis of moral obliga- tion 53 III. Modem survivals of mediaeval metaphysics and anthropocentric ethics. The doctrine of evolution taught by Greek philosophers. The earliest and strongest emotion in the breast of the savage is that of hatred and hostility to!

JHdoac/u tih^ ./960 7Sh/6- (Jj SS \( EVOLUTIONAL ETHICS AND ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY BY E. EVANS AUTHOR OF ANIMAL SYMBOLISM IN ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE, THE CRIMINAL PROSECUTION AND CAPITAL PUNISHMENT OF ANIMALS, ETC. CHAPTER PAOB Introduction: Animal psychology as the foundation OP animal's rights in the historical evolution OF ethics 1 EVOLCJTIONAL ETHICS. "Zo- *" ophily." Personification of inanimate objects by primitive peoples. Observation of ani- mals by hunters and herdsmen in early society. ( other men, as well as to all beasts of the field and of I the forest.

The transition from the life of hunters to that of herdsmen, and finally from these nomadic stages to 8 EVOLUTIONAL ETHICS.

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