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The mobile phase can be a gas or a liquid while the stationary phase can be a liquid or solid.

aginsky v n some new ideas for dating ballpoint inks-87

In order to address these challenges, an attempt was made to study the rate of diffusion of inks at different time intervals using hyperspectral imaging.

Khound Directorate of Forensic Science, Government of Assam, Guwahati Priyankar Ghosh Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Directorate of Forensic Science Services, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, Kolkata Abstract The challenges faced by the forensic document examiner are to know whether entries/writings with ink made on certain documents – such as logbooks, registers, OMR sheets, cheques, drafts, promising letter/notes, deeds, wills, prescription notes, and other important documents – are executed during the same period of time, or in different periods of time, and to know whether entries/writings were executed by the same ink.

Phenoxyethanol is of particularly high interest as it is found in more than 80% of the blue ballpoint pens at different concentrations. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.

These techniques are based on using the microspectrophotometric determination of the rates of color changing in inks as a result of the reaction with chemicals—the older the ink the less the rate (procedure 1); a combination of gas chromatographic (GC) and spectrophotometric methods for determining the masses' ratios “volatile component/dye component” in ink that decrease with the age of inks (procedure 2); a GC method of determining the extent of extraction of ink volatile components that decreases as ink ages on paper (procedure 3); a thin-layer chromatographic method for determining age changes in resins and other colorless nonvolatile ballpoint ink components: these changes are detected by observing the resulting thin-layer chromatograms under UV illumination and can be evaluated by using scanning densitometry (procedure 4).

Different techniques have been used, based on the study of chemical and physical properties of various types of inks.

By Nato Locktongbam Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Directorate of Forensic Science Services, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, Kolkata Dr.Components that interact more with the stationary phase will be slowed.Thin layer chromatography (TLC) utilizes a liquid mobile phase and a solid stationary phase.This is because the concepts of absolute and relative aging are not clearly understood.No specific data bank regarding the chemical compositions and dye components for the various ink types is available.These questions should be carefully studied for accurate and ethical application of this methodology in casework.

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